Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide, and have increased proportionally from Therefore, the ability to naturally regenerate the heart would have an enormous impact of modern healthcare. However, while several animals can regenerate heart damage e. Despite the earlier belief that human cardiomyocytes are not generated later in life, a recent study has found that this is not the case.
This study took advantage of the nuclear bomb testing during the Cold War , which introduced carbon into the atmosphere and therefore into the cells of nearby inhabitants. However, serious doubts have been placed on the validity of this research, including the appropriateness of the samples as representative of normally aging hearts. Regardless, further research has been conducted that supports the potential for human cardiac regeneration. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase was found to induce mitosis in adult mammalian cardiomyocytes. One of the most promising sources of heart regeneration is the use of stem cells.
It was demonstrated in mice that there is a resident population of stem cells or cardiac progenitors in the adult heart — this population of stem cells was shown to be reprogrammed to differentiate into cardiomyocytes that replaced those lost during a heart tissue death. Loss of the myocardium due to disease often leads to heart failure; therefore, it would be useful to be able to take cells from elsewhere in the heart to replenish those lost.
This was achieved in when mature cardiac fibroblasts were reprogrammed directly into cardiomyocyte-like cells. Simply injecting functioning cardiac cells into a damaged heart is only partially effective. In order to achieve more reliable results, structures composed of the cells need to be produced and then transplanted. Masumoto and his team designed a method of producing sheets of cardiomyocytes and vascular cells from human iPSCs. These sheets were then transplanted onto infarcted hearts of rats, leading to significantly improved cardiac function.
Tissue-engineered heart valves derived from human cells have been created in vitro and transplanted into a non-human primate model.
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These showed a promising amount of cellular repopulation even after eight weeks, and succeeded in outperforming currently-used non-biological valves. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD is one of the most widespread health threats today. Having killed over 3 million people in , COPD was the third greatest cause of death.
It has been shown that bone marrow-derived cells could be the source of progenitor cells of multiple cell lineages, and a study suggested that one of these cell types was involved in lung regeneration. The extracellular matrix is the key to generating entire organs in vitro.
It was found that by carefully removing the cells of an entire lung, a "footprint" is left behind that can guide cellular adhesion and differentiation if a population of lung epithelial cells and chondrocytes are added. These can then be used to re-cellularise a three-dimensional lung tissue scaffold. Indeed, in , there was a successful clinical transplantation of a tissue-engineered trachea in a year-old woman with end-stage bronchomalacia. An ECM scaffold was created by removing the cells and MHC antigens from a human donated trachea, which was then colonised by epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem cell-derived chondrocytes cultured from cells of the recipient.
A investigation took this one step further by using the ECM scaffold to produce entire lungs in vitro to be transplanted into living rats. Cystic fibrosis is another disease of the lungs, which is highly fatal and genetically linked to a mutation in the CFTR gene. Through growing patient-specific lung epithelium in vitro, lung tissue expressing the cystic fibrosis phenotype has been achieved. The penis has been successfully regenerated in the lab. A goal of spinal cord injury research is to promote neuroregeneration , reconnection of damaged neural circuits. In a Polish fireman Darek Fidyka , with paraplegia of the spinal cord, underwent a procedure, which involved extracting olfactory ensheathing cells OECs from Fidyka's olfactory bulbs , and injecting these stem cells, in vivo, into the site of the previous injury.
Fidyka eventually gained feeling, movement and sensation in his limbs, especially on the side where the stem cells were injected; he also reported gaining sexual function. Fidyka can now drive and can now walk some distance aided by a frame. He is believed to be the first person in the world to recover sensory function from a complete severing of the spinal nerves.
Researchers from the University of Edinburgh have succeeded in regenerating a living organ. The regenerated organ closely resembled a juvenile thymus in terms of architecture and gene expression profile.
A Tortured Superhero: THE HEART DOES NOT GROW BACK by Fred Venturini – Review
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wilgus 9 March Retrieved 7 February World J. World J Urol. MRS Bull.
#RRSciFiMonth: The Heart Does Not Grow Back by Fred Venturini | The BiblioSanctum
Retrieved 7 May Archived from the original on Retrieved 7 April British Medical Journal. United Kingdom: pmj. Gladstone Institutes. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open. Fernandes, MD, Juan C. Samayoa, MD, G. Nicholls, BS, Mark A. Mihm, MD, William G. Austen, Jr. Retrieved 8 June Edith 17 April Retrieved 8 May May Curr Opin Cardiol. Retrieved After the repair process has been completed, the structure and function of the injured tissue are completely normal. Get Both! Adult Books 4 Teens fantasy.
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