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Lincoln promised in his Inaugural Address that he would do nothing as President to interfere with slavery in the states where it already existed. To satisfy the South and forestall further secession, he said he would enforce the notorious Fugitive Slave Act of By the end of , Johnson had issued thousands of pardons to individual Confederates and restored their state governments with little difference to them except that they had to repudiate the Confederate debt and accept the 13 th Amendment ending slavery.

The Supreme Court Case That Enshrined White Supremacy in Law

Fortunately, Radical Republicans in Congress thwarted Johnson, a former small-time Tennessee slave owner whose interest in ending slavery came not from moral principles but from his personal sense of inferiority to the wealthy planters and his desire that their political power based on slavery be curtailed. Johnson who had made himself odious not only through his pro-Southern policies but also because of a Trump-like inability to control his utterances was impeached and nearly removed from presidential office.

Under the Radical Republicans, the South was divided up into military districts and placed under watchful control. Julian, and Charles Sumner, was never put into effect. What arose in the South, although some of the ex-slaves did acquire land by working hard and saving and through other means, was the system of sharecropping which left many ex-slaves still laboring on the land of their former masters.

However, his act was the origin of the belief widespread among the freedmen and women that they would receive 40 acres with a mule to help till the land. The Union officers who had to tell them did so with great disgust. Forty million acres of this confiscated land would then be broken down into 40 acre plots and distributed to the freedmen and families for their sustenance. Doing this, Stevens believed, would punish the members of the Southern elite who had been most responsible for the rebellion and would, at the same time, revolutionize social relations in the South providing a solid economic foundation for new and proper republican institutions.

Teach his posterity to respect labor and eschew treason. Stevens regarded providing land for the ex-slaves as being of primary importance over according them access to voting — finally ensured legally by the 15 th Amendment in — because that right could be subverted by the economically-powerful pressuring those folks dependent on them to vote in the way that they wanted.


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In poor and declining health, Stevens dedicated the last year of his life to promoting this legislation. His radically democratic Jeffersonian plan to totally transform the South creating a new class of black and white yeoman farmers was supported by some other Radical Republicans and by the abolitionist and labor reformer Wendell Phillips. Unionist conventions of ex-slaves and poor whites held in the South passed strong resolutions and agitated in favor of breaking the power of the traitorous Southern elite by confiscating and redistributing their land to those who were in need.

However, the Republican Party was coming to be dominated by Northern capitalists who were excited about possible investment opportunities in the post-war South with the ready availability of its cheap labor. Radical Republican Senator Benjamin Wade had made a much-discussed speech in which he called for a more equitable distribution of property throughout the United States.

Thus were reached the limits of a bourgeois revolution. During Radical Reconstruction while under the protection of federal troops occupying Southern states, governments consisting of blacks and poorer whites took power and enacted progressive reforms such as a more equitable tax system and the first free public education. Some African-Americans affiliated with the Republican Party were elected to represent their states in Congress. Senate was occupied for a time in by a free-born black Southerner, Rev. Hiram Revels, and Mississippi in chose Blanche K. Bruce, born a slave, as one of its Senators.

Klansmen were put on trial and jailed. At the same time, some of the formerly redoubtable congressional defenders of black rights among Republican politicians — including George W. Most Northerners, including those who were avowedly anti-slavery, had always held racist views and had never shared the vision of Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner for full black and white racial equality.

Stevens who died in asked to have his body interred in a colored cemetery in Lancaster, Pennsylvania as one final protest against racial segregation and inequality. Once protective federal troops were withdrawn from the South — the last ones being withdrawn in as part of a closed-door political bargain between the Republicans and Democrats to keep a Republican as President following a contested election — political control in the Southern states reverted largely into the hands of the former slaveocracy under the aegis of the Democratic Party.

How the South Won the Civil War | The New Yorker

The conservative U. Supreme Court aided in this back-sliding.


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In its Cruikshank decision, it refused to intervene in defense of the 1 st amendment right of assembly and the 2 nd amendment right to bear arms in a case involving black Republican Party members who had come under murderous attack from white Democratic Party supporters in Colfax, Louisiana. However, this legislation was defeated through a filibuster by Southern Senators, a tactic that would be used by reactionaries to block progressive legislation for many decades.

How the South Won the Civil War

The Supreme Court declared this to be constitutional in Plessy v. Ferguson Racial segregation and discrimination was also used to divide blacks and working class whites and keep them from finding common cause as they had begun to do in the South under Reconstruction. By , the White House had a Southern-born occupant, Woodrow Wilson, who instituted segregation in federal government office buildings. Inexcusably, most Caucasian historians of the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries on both sides of the Mason-Dixon Line aided and abetted this inaccurate revisionist historical narrative which is what I would be taught growing up and going to school in Virginia during the s.

A New Right to Property: Civil War Confiscation in the Reconstruction Supreme Court

It would take a handful of African-American activists and historians, most notably the great radical W. Dubois with his Black Reconstruction , to begin to set the record straight. As Dubois observed, the ill consequences of an aborted revolution in the American South were felt not only in that particular section of the country and in the U. And the United States, reenforced by the increased political power of the South based on disenfranchisement of black voters, took its place to reenforce the capitalistic dictatorship of the United States, which became the most powerful in the world, and which backed the new industrial imperialism and degraded colored labor the world over.

This meant a tremendous change in the whole intellectual and spiritual development of civilization in the South and in the United States because of the predominant political power of the South, built on disenfranchised labor. The United States was turned into a reactionary force. It became the cornerstone of that new imperialism which is subjecting the labor of yellow, brown and black peoples to the dictation of capitalism organized on a world basis. As we all know, the s and s brought renewed forward motion in the field of civil rights for African-Americans in the South in the context of a worldwide wave of freedom movements waged by people of color.

Liberal court rulings and new laws were made and enforced through federal actions, including the dispatch of troops where necessary to break racist resistance. Toppling the statuary honoring the Confederate losers — along with supporting our brave Antifa fighters — has to happen even more strongly under these circumstances.


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  5. Civil War. Reconciliation with utter reactionaries is impossible. They will never go quietly from the stage of history. So they need to be put firmly down. Above all, they have to be fully deprived of the economic foundations underlying their capacity to re-exercise political power.

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