Setting up reading intentions help you organise your course reading.
It makes it easy to scan through your lists and keep track of progress. Here's an example of what they look like:. Your reading intentions are also stored in your profile for future reference. To set a reading intention, click through to any list item, and look for the panel on the left hand side:. Social policy in the post-welfare state: Australian society in a changing world Chapter 2 - Social policy in a 'free-market' economy pp. Edition 3rd ed ISBN Library availability. View in catalogue. Have you read this? The expansion of health costs is a telling example of this: since the s, healthcare expenditure have skyrocketed in decentralised or insurance-based schemes such as in the United States, whereas the cost increase in state-provided health systems has been more modest.
Inequality per se is not necessarily unjust or unfair and a cause of social unrest. Much depends on the mechanisms that produce inequalities.
Some people work harder, educate themselves, make better use of their resources etc. It is justifiable that some people earn more than others. If hard-working individuals cannot get ahead, they lose faith and begin to rebel. On the other hand, many people feel that their employment and livelihood are endangered due to global market forces that are impossible for nation states to harness and regulate. This is an ongoing debate in several countries around Europe.
This is the breeding ground for populist movements. Disillusionment in the European project, fuelled by these movements, is hindering the European Union from operating in the global arena to find problems to global security threats. The Nordic counter strategy against this type of defeatism is investment in human capital and risk-prevention measures. Behind this social investment strategy is the notion that the road to a stable society is not merely about expenditures and compensation for risks, but more importantly, about enhancing human capital.
Where, when, and to whom you are born evidently determines your life chances. This implies a loss of human capital among those unfortunate enough to be born with a less socially privileged background, in dire economic times, in areas of social or economic disarray, or, as is often the case, in a combination of the three. Education, and social and health services aim to give individuals the opportunity to live a decent life independently of their socioeconomic background and capacity to pay.
Social policy - Wikipedia
Universal prenatal healthcare and training in parenting skills to ensure a healthy start for infants are steps towards a good and just society. As for other investments, the rate of return tends to be larger the longer-term they are. For example, childcare may give superior returns than the rehabilitation of older workers. In the early years, returns are mainly cognitive and social in nature and the size of the return increases over the years.
The Nordic vision of education is that girls and boys from less privileged backgrounds should receive an education on par with children from more privileged backgrounds. The education system is crucial for determining to what degree children inherit the situation of their parents.
Thus, there are strong levelling ideas behind education systems. The notion of universal access to education was a prominent philosophy in the mass-education systems in the Nordic countries.
Social Policy in the Post-Welfare State - Australian society in a changing world
There are no tuition fees at any educational level including universities. All students receive allowances for living expenses and housing. The Nordic educational system is geared towards promoting equal opportunity. The Nordic countries can serve as an example of how combining gender equality with high levels of labour force participation and fertility can promote human security and social stability, and how social investments in children promote human capital accumulation and boost intergenerational mobility. Rather, it is an indication that they have the same problems as other countries but on a smaller scale in some areas.
For example, populist right-wing movements, which are hostile towards migrants, arealso gaining ground in the Nordic countries. However, the Nordic countries continue, by varying degrees, to rely on universal policies to ensure social cohesion. The core message from the experience of the Nordic countries is that inclusive institutions are self-reinforcing.
While democratisation can create pressure for more developed and more inclusive public institutions, public institutions can also contribute to democratisation. A universal social policy, to which everybody contributes, and from which everybody can expect benefits when in need, creates strong social bonds, bridging various social gaps and cleavages. Universalism is important not only for social security and basic rights, it is also a trademark of a fair society that guarantees equal possibilities to every person regardless of their individual background.
Universal and free basic education should be open to everybody regardless of gender, social background, race, or ethnicity. Social and health benefits should cover everyone. High quality childcare and school services provide equal possibilities for all children. All human beings are born free. This principle sets standards for the educational systems from early childhood schooling up to the educational possibilities for adults and elderly people. Social and educational institutions have to remedy unjust disparities and to provide people with the capacity to take full responsibility for their own lives.
If they are successful they will create social trust and stability, which will in turn enhance a sense of security overall. Sign up to the newsletter for handpicked highlights of articles, interviews and translations published each month. Editorial: In a Europe with a changing political landscape, the future of the Union— and incidentally that of the Greens in — will be largely played out over the question of security.
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