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The grade is often a number, from 1 to 4. The higher the number, the more abnormal the cells look. Higher-grade cancers tend to grow and spread more quickly than lower-grade cancers. If your doctor believes that cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes, other tests will be done. If cancer is thought to spread to other parts of the body, imaging tests such as a CT scan , or MRI will be done.
What is Penile Cancer? - Urology Care Foundation
If penile cancer is found early, it can be treated with success and low risk. If the tumor is on top of the skin, it may be treated with a skin cream. This cream has few side effects. External beam radiation is also a therapy for small lesions. This is a type of surgery where layers of abnormal tissue are shaved off until normal tissue is reached. With both of these methods, the penis should still look normal and work as usual. But careful follow-up is vital to check for early recurrence.
Causes of penile cancer
With larger lesions, more tissue needs to be removed. Your surgeon will also consider taking out or draining lymph nodes in the groin. A mix of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy may be needed. In cases where the cancer is more advanced, the whole penis may need to be removed. Early detection is very important.
It not only ensures better results, but there are more treatment options. After treatment your doctors will want to watch you closely.
During follow-up visits, your doctor will look for new signs of cancer and help you manage treatment side effects. Almost any cancer treatment has side effects. Some may last a short time, others may last the rest of your life. Your post-treatment experience depends mostly on the stage of cancer when it was found.
Curing the cancer is almost certain when lesions are found early. As the tumor becomes more advanced, cure is less certain. If later-stage cancer is found, treatment may cause surgical side effects that are difficult to deal with. Talk to your health care team about any problems you notice, and any questions or concerns you have. Until recently, penile cancer was mostly thought to be caused by chemical irritation. For this reason, there was no worry about transmitting it. But recent data have linked the HPV to both penile and cervical cancers.
There seem to be more cases of these cancers in the spouses of people with this sexually transmitted disease. You should also be aware of any lesions. Women should have cervical examinations often. The surgeries needed for more advanced cancer may cause you to have to sit when you urinate.
More extensive procedures might, though. This question is a matter of much debate. Circumcision soon after birth is the best protection from getting penile cancer later. For example, penile cancer is very rare in Jewish males, for whom circumcision at birth is the accepted ritual. Penile cancer is more common in Muslim males, for whom the accepted ritual is circumcision at puberty.
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Penile cancer generally starts on the glans head or tip of the penis. In the United States, penile cancer is diagnosed in about 1, men each year.
The penile cancer rate is much higher in India and some South American and African countries. Behavioral and lifestyle changes can help prevent penile cancer. Some men who develop penile cancer have obvious symptoms in the early stages. Others may not have symptoms until the disease has spread.
Penile cancer symptoms vary from man to man. They may include:.
- General Information About Penile Cancer.
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Unfortunately, many men do not want to talk about these symptoms with their doctors. This may delay them from seeking treatment until penile cancer is advanced and harder to treat.
Although these symptoms may not mean you have penile cancer, you should report any changes in the penis to your doctor as soon as possible. They may be signs of another health problem. The earlier penile cancer is diagnosed, the higher the chances for successful treatment. This is why it is important to report any changes in your penis to your doctor. Since penile cancer begins in the skin of the penis, men often notice them in the early stages.
However, some men are hesitant to mention the changes to their doctors, which delays their treatment. If you have penile cancer symptoms, your doctor will ask you questions about your health, your lifestyle, including smoking and drinking habits, and your family medical history. The doctor will examine your penis. If your doctor suspects you may have penile cancer, one or more of the following tests may be used to diagnose penile cancer and determine if it has spread.
These tests also may be used to find out if treatment is working. The type of procedure depends on the type of tissue or lesion. This procedure is used most often for lesions that are larger, ulcerated or that appear to have spread deep into the tissue. Usually, this type of biopsy is performed for small abnormal areas. If the lesion is on the foreskin, you doctor may suggest circumcision. A thin needle is inserted into the groin area. Then cells are drawn out and looked at under a microscope.
If you are diagnosed with penile cancer, your doctor will determine the stage of the disease. Staging is a way of classifying cancer by how much disease is in the body and where it has spread when it is diagnosed.
More About Treatments for Penile Cancer
This helps the doctor plan the best way to treat the cancer. Once the staging classification is determined, it stays the same even if treatment is successful or the cancer spreads. It has not spread to lymph nodes or distant sites. It also may have grown into the corpus spongiosum tissue within the penis or the urethra the small tube through which urine passes from the bladder to the outside of the body. The cancer has spread to a single groin lymph node. It has not spread to distant sites.
It has spread to two or more groin lymph nodes. Recurrent penile cancer may return in the penis or any other part of the body. They communicate with each other — and with you — to ensure you receive the most advanced penile cancer treatment with the least impact on your body. This means we have a higher level of experience and expertise, which is crucial to your treatment and recovery.
Like all surgeries, penile cancer surgery often is more successful when performed by a specialist with a great deal of experience. This is particularly true for organ-preserving surgeries, Mohs surgery and plastic surgery reconstruction, which usually are used to treat penile cancer.