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Research in International Business and Finance , Vol. Problems and Perspectives on International Banking and Finance. Long, B. Paper presented at IPN. University of Manchester, 1 st , 3 rd , September Universitat de Valencia, Spain on June Jubilee Building, University of Sussex. Florence, Italy, September , Busan South Korea , June 22 nd and 24 th Bochum Germany , May the 27 th to the 29 th , Asiedu, Y.
Perez, J. Petraglia, M. Ankomah, B. McDonagh, D. University of Leicester, UK, 14 and 15 November Conference Proceedings. Best Paper Award.
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Conference Proceedings, Dublin, Ireland, 15 th of June In Cleveland, the distribution is similar with White Hat at 4 percent and Concept and Imagine at 3 percent and 2 percent respectively. The Cleveland market includes an additional manager, Constellation, serving 3 percent of enrollments. Figure 17 takes us back to Columbus, and shows the average school level enrollments over time. Enrollments for charter schools and for all schools have leveled off around pupils. Kansas City, Missouri, presents a peculiar case in many ways.
Figure 18 shows that total enrollments in the school district which covers only part of the city were already in decline from to , at which time the remaining predominantly white northeast corner of the district which was within the city boundaries of Independence was permitted to annex itself.
Thus, the sharp dip in total enrollment that follows. Also during this period, the state of Missouri permitted charter schools to be established only within the boundaries of Kansas City Public Schools and the St.
Louis Public School District. Since , total district and charter enrollments combined are down from just over 38, to just over 26,, with district enrollment down to about 17, Charter enrollment has grown over that time, but charter market share has grown largely as a function of total enrollment decline including annexation.
Enrollments seem to have stabilized in recent years. As Figure 19 shows, average enrollments per school, which dipped below in the late s, appear to have rebounded, to over students. Newark, New Jersey, presents another more modest and more regulated case of charter expansion. New Jersey has only one authorizer, the state itself, and charter schools receive pass-through funding from host districts.
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Unlike Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, New Jersey does not permit for-profit management companies from operating charter schools. Total student enrollments in Newark have remained relatively constant Figure Like Dayton and Cleveland, a large share of Newark schools Figure 21 are district schools 86 percent. The remaining students in Newark attend schools operated by KIPP and Uncommon Schools, both established nonprofit providers with a significant regional and national presence. Figure 22 shows that the average enrollment per school citywide dipped slightly in recent years, but remains relatively large compared with the other cities herein, at about Charter school average enrollment has increased substantially, but it is important to note here that KIPP and Uncommon schools in Newark are often reported as single schools even though they are now large enough to operate multiple schools, organized like districts within the district.
Finally, we come to Philadelphia. In Pennsylvania, charter schools are established under the authority of local boards of education Commonwealth of Pennsylvania n. Thus, local board leadership decides how many charters to authorize and how charter schools may grow throughout the district. As mentioned in the introduction to this report, prior to engaging in a strategy of charter expansion through private managers, Philadelphia had engaged in large-scale private management of district schools.
Two substantive differences between these strategies are that charters established within the district and operated by private managers are able to negotiate their own employment agreements, and charter operators within Philadelphia pursue their own facilities arrangements. Districts retain responsibility for providing transportation. Figure 23 shows that total enrollments have declined somewhat in Philadelphia from just over to just under , Philadelphia is a much larger district than any of the others addressed herein.
District enrollment has dipped to under , and has continued to fall, in part as the district continues an aggressive school closure plan leaving some geographic areas underserved by district schools Philadelphia Public School Notebook That is, charter market-share growth in Philadelphia and other cities herein such as Newark is less indicative of market demand for charters and more indicative of public policy to promote charters while dismantling districts.
Current leadership in Philadelphia proposes similar expansion Mezzacappa Figure 24 shows the distribution of enrollments by operator in Philadelphia.
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In Philadelphia, the largest single charter operator is a property management company 7 and the second largest operators are local chains, Mastery Charter Schools and Universal Companies, Inc. KIPP schools also have a presence in Philadelphia. Figure 25 shows that average school enrollment citywide has leveled off to under pupils, with charter enrollment reaching just over These enrollments are notably much larger than in other cities herein.
In this next section, I address trends in revenues and expenditures in school districts addressed above, excluding New Orleans. Of particular concern are those cases in which revenues are declining rapidly with enrollment decline, putting the squeeze on districts to reduce expenditures more rapidly than costs potentially leading to significant annual deficits. Specifically, I look at:.
Data are school district finance data from the U. Unfortunately, these data do not sufficiently track fund balances. In the summary section of this report, I present calculated annual deficits based on revenue and expenditure data. I also evaluate overhead expenses as a share of total revenues to determine the effect of fixed costs on declining budgets.
Of particular interest here is whether the reduction of enrollments from students transferring from district to charter schools leads to a manageable decline in total revenues, given declining enrollments of host districts. Further, a growing share of the budget going toward overhead may be evident in a decline in services in the classroom, captured through such measures as pupil-to-teacher ratios.
All revenues and expenditures in the following section are adjusted for competitive wage growth and labor market variation. That is, for each of the following figures, dollar values are adjusted to their national average value and for inflation set to constant dollars. Thus, all figures are expressed in national average constant dollars.
They are not directly comparable to reported annual district budgets. It is important to again reflect on the different approaches states take to fund charter schools. In some of our cases that follow, including Washington, Newark, and Philadelphia, charter schools are funded by a district pass-through formula. Only in the final year of Philadelphia data is the amount of the charter transfer reported. The charter transfer is not reported in the Washington, D. Our other three examples, Detroit, Columbus, and Kansas City, are all described as direct state-funded models but they differ in a few ways.
In Michigan, charter schools receive a direct state allotment, from state funds Michigan Department of Education Ohio funding is similar, but as will be seen below, state aid sent directly to charters is reported as revenue to districts and then as transfer to charters Ohio Department of Education The Kansas City case is somewhat different, imposing a much greater revenue penalty on the district. In Missouri, the charter allotment is calculated based on the state and local revenues of the host district.
The state then provides direct aid to the charter, but reduces the district aid by the amounts of both the state aid that would have been received and the local revenue that would have been allocated, per student Missouri Revised Statutes Figure 26 shows the unique revenue structure of Washington, D. The sharp dip in local revenue in is likely a data anomaly. Overall, District of Columbia schools revenue has remained relatively constant, adjusted for changes in labor costs, for the last several years as total enrollments have remained relatively constant, but shifted to charter schools.
All dollars are adjusted to their national mean value and in constant year dollars.
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That is, they are adjusted for both regional variation and inflation. That is, as over 30 percent of students have shifted to charter schools starting at a baseline of 6. School administration expenses have increased slightly. Because the district is operating a reduced number of district schools, one would expect this figure to drop, unless some charter-related expenses were shifted to this reporting category.
It would appear that transportation expenses were shifted to other reporting categories around , and have been picked up at least partially in district administrative expenses. The total of these expense categories is down by about 25 percent, but this may be in part due to reclassification of expenditures.