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Machine models and complexity measures

However, he has made numerous other contributions both to cryptography and computer science more generally. He has also made significant contributions to visual cryptography. However, his most important contribution in collaboration with Eli Biham has probably been his discovery of the technique known as differential cryptanalysis, a general method for attacking block ciphers by analyzing how differences in information input can affect differences in output.

In his work in other fields of computer science, Shamir found the first linear-time algorithm for 2-satisfiability and demonstrated the equivalence of the complexity classes PSPACE and IP. Sifakis was born in Heraklion, Greece, in After receiving his undergraduate education in electrical engineering from the Technical University of Athens, he obtained his PhD in mathematics in with Habilitation in from the University of Grenoble in France. Sifakis is best known for developing the idea of model checking.

In a nutshell, a particular aspect, or specification, of a complex computational system is first expressed as a set of specially designed temporal logic formulas, known as a model. An efficient algorithm can then be used to exhaustively and automatically check whether the model satisfies the original specification, thus verifying that aspect of the complex system. The procedure can then be repeated for other specifications of the system.

Solomon was born in Somerville, Massachusetts, in Solomon is known for her work on artificial intelligence and programming languages for educational purposes, especially introducing small children to basic computational concepts. She began to be interested in computers while working as a secretary for Marvin Minsky at MIT in the s.

While at MIT, she taught herself Lisp. Radia J. Perlman see above later joined this group.

Lecture by Turing award winner Stephen Cook at Techfest 2013, IIT Bombay

In , Solomon co-authored with Papert a widely circulated internal MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab memo [16] that sketched a vision for incorporating computers into early childhood education. In later years, she worked for the Atari Corporation and taught computer science at the high school level for a number of years. Stearns was born in Caldwell, New Jersey, in He received his PhD in mathematics in from Princeton University. Stearns is known for his contributions to several different fields of mathematics underlying the theory of computation, including automata theory, the analysis of algorithms, and game theory.

However, he is undoubtedly best known for his work on computational complexity theory, especially the early work he did in collaboration with Juris Hartmanis see above. In later work in collaboration with Philip M. Lewis and Daniel J. Rosenkrantz, Stearns introduced the notion of serializability as a necessary and sufficient condition for the consistency and correctness of the fast execution of transactions in concurrent database systems.

In work with Harry B. Hunt III, Stearns proved important theorems concerning reduction principles for finding simpler adequate models of highly complex real-world systems, as well as sum-of-products problems viewed algebraically, which extend the structure tree concept to quantified formulas.

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Stonebraker was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, in He received his PhD in computer engineering in from the University of Michigan. Next, Stonebraker and co-workers developed a distributed, main-memory, online transaction processing OLTP type of system H-Store , which provided greatly increased throughput on transaction processing workloads.

Programming languages, Computer graphics, Interactive interfaces, Real-time computing. Sutherland was born in Hastings, Nebraska, in Sketchpad is the ancestor of most later graphical user interfaces GUIs. In , Sutherland, together with his colleague David C. The firm did pioneering research and development in a number of different fields, including real-time reactive computing, accelerated 3D computer graphics, and printer languages.

Clark went on to found Adobe Systems and Silicon Graphics, respectively. Sutherland received the A. Tarjan was born in , Pomona, California, in Knuth see above. Tarjan is currently James S. Tarjan is best known for his pioneering theoretical work in applied mathematics, especially on graph structure algorithms and data structures.

Working with John E.

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Hopcroft see above , he also developed the Hopcroft-Tarjan planarity testing algorithm, the first linear-time algorithm for planarity-testing determining whether a given graph can be drawn in the plane without edge intersections. As to the latter i. Tarjan won the A. Taylor was born in Chicago in Taylor conducts research mainly in the area of the analysis performance analysis and modeling, power analysis of high-performance computing, especially with respect to parallel computing systems and their scientific applications, computer architectures, and visualization environments.

She is also known as an important developer of Prophesy, a database management system used to collect and analyze data to predict the performance of different applications on parallel computing systems. Thompson was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, in For most of his career, he worked for Bell Labs, retiring in He is currently a Distinguished Engineer with Google, Inc.

Ritchie began working on an operating system called Multics. For fun, Thompson wrote the code for an early video game he named Space Travel, which ran on Multics. When the Multics project was eventually shelved, Thompson and Ritchie began developing a new operating system with many innovative characteristics, including a hierarchical file system, a command-line interpreter, device files, and ancillary utility programs. Thompson won the A. Torvalds was born in Helsinki, Finland, in , into a Swedish-speaking family.

He is currently a Fellow with the Linux Foundation, which he created in to provide support to the worldwide Linux open source community. Torvalds is the inventor of Linux, a very widely used, free, open-source operating system. Torvalds created what is now known as the Linux kernel in , while still an undergraduate at the University of Helsinki.

For example, the Linux kernel is the basic operating system for both the Android smartphone and the TOP supercomputer. In , Torvalds created Git, a version- control system for tracking changes in computer files and coordinating work on files shared among multiple users. Valiant was born in Budapest, Hungary, in He is currently T. Valiant has done theoretical and applied important work in the areas of computational complexity theory and automata theory. In the latter domain, he invented an efficient algorithm for context-free parsing that is still the asymptotically fastest one known.

More recently, he has been working in the areas of machine learning and computational neuroscience. In the realm of computational neuroscience, he works on neural-circuit models of memory, learning, and general intelligence. Valiant received the A. Wirth was born in Winterthur, a town near Zurich, in Switzerland, in However, he remains actively engaged in perfecting the Oberon operating system and language, originally developed in Wirth is best known for inventing Pascal, the influential programming language he invented in the late s, as well as its descendants Modula and Modula Prior to Pascal, he had been one of the chief designers of the pioneering Euler and Algol W languages.

In the late s, Wirth led the teams that designed and implemented the Lilith workstation computer and its successor, Ceres. Beginning in the s and continuing until the present day, Wirth has been developing a family of general-purpose programming languages known as Oberon, as well as an operating system of the same name. Yao was born in Shanghai, China, in He holds two PhDs, one in physics, conferred in by Harvard University, the other in computer science, conferred in by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He has done fundamental work in computational complexity theory, the analysis of algorithms, cryptographic protocols, and communication complexity.

In more recent years, he has focused his attention on the emerging fields of computational economics and quantum computing. However, he undoubtedly remains best known for his earlier work in computational complexity theory, especially as applied to the analysis of randomized algorithms, and hence to pseudo-random number generation and cryptography.

This principle says that the expected cost of a randomized algorithm on the worst-case input is no better than a worst-case random probability distribution of the deterministic algorithm which performs best for that distribution. Yao won the A. Quantum computation is still in the very early stages of development. At this point, it is more of a theoretical possibility than an actually existing technology although prototype models of quantum computers are being tested as we speak. The two areas in which this field of research is expected to bear technological fruit in the near term are cryptography the success of quantum computation would render all existing computer security systems obsolete overnight and as a tool for helping physicists, chemists, and others to produce improved models of naturally occurring quantum systems, thus providing them with an enhanced ability to predict and manipulate the behavior of such systems.

And, of course, beyond these expected applications, there is also the sheer joy of discovery which lies at the heart of fundamental research in all of the natural sciences.

We thought you might be curious to know the names of some of the brightest stars of this nascent but extremely exciting discipline. Please note that no A. Turing Awards have been conferred on anyone working primarily on quantum computation, at least so far. Benioff was born in Pasadena, California, in During the s, Benioff began to research the physical feasibility of building quantum computers, developing work begun by Charles H.

Bennett see below a few years earlier.

Computational complexity theory

In he published a seminal paper [17] describing the idea of a quantum computer quantum Turing machine in terms of quantum mechanical Hamiltonian systems. He followed this paper up within another one two years later, [18] which described in much greater detail the logical and physical requirements on quantum mechanical Hamiltonian models of Turing machines. In addition to penning this pair of ground-breaking papers, Benioff was also a noted public advocate of quantum computing, who played a key role in persuading the wider scientific community to take the idea seriously.

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